Business Plan

Poultry Farming Business Plan

Poultry farming is one of the most lucrative agriculture businesses in Nigeria. Thousands of tons of poultry products are consumed everyday yet, the demand remains unsatisfiable. A large quantity of Nigeria’s poultry products are imported into the country. But with this aggressive imports happening, not enough poultry products are available to meet the local market demand.

About 160 million Nigerians consume a lot of poultry products, ranging from chickens, turkeys, eggs, and a lot more. This shows that the opportunities surrounding poultry farming are exponential in highly profitable ways. While a lot of people supply frozen poultry products to restaurants, events, and more, many others supply mostly eggs, and the rest supply poultry feeds. The market opportunity existing in poultry farming is extremely wide and lucrative if executed right.

If you’re looking for answers to questions like; how to start a poultry farming business? How to make poultry farming very profitable? How to start poultry farming with low capital? This poultry farming article will explain everything in a very detailed manner for you to easily understand and start your own profitable poultry farm. With the information in this article, you can start off today with little capital. It’s important to always start small and over time grow exponentially because you need to understand all the perks in the business, without losing so much money.

Before we dive right into the poultry business plan, here are 4 major reasons poultry farming is a very profitable business in Nigeria:

1). Food Is Important To Everyone:

Everyone must feed to stay alive, but a majority of individuals value poultry products above other types of meals. Poultry animals like chickens, turkeys, and more feed millions of homes everyday. Their importance in meals mostly insinuate that people can’t do without them.

2). Poultry Animals Grow Very Fast:

It takes 28 weeks for an average chicken to be fully grown and ready for market. It also takes 21 days for a chicken’s eggs to hatch. But with the use of incubators, it takes a lot lesser for chicken eggs to hatch. Poultry animals in general like turkeys, chickens, guinea fowls, and more have a fast reproduction and growth rate.

3). Poultry Animals Lay A Lot Of Eggs:

An average layer lays one egg every two days. A farm with 1000 layers would produce at least 800 eggs a day. The market value for the eggs are extremely profitable with 1000 layers capable of producing 400,000 Naira ($1,333.4) in sales every month. A larger portion of this birds would mean an explosive revenue rate.

4). Price For Poultry Products Are Attractive:

The price of poultry products have been on the rise for years. With an average sized chicken costing at least 2,500 Naira ($8.4), the profit margin accrued never stops growing. Selling 10,000 chickens in a month would amount to 25,000,000 Naira ($83,333.4) in revenues generated.

With these lucrative poultry benefits, here is how you should prepare your poultry business plan. This “poultry farming business plan template” will ensure your poultry farm turns up profitable in a short period if you put in the right work to it.

See Also: Aquaculture: How To Start A Profitable Fish Farming Business Anywhere In Africa

The first thing you need to consider if you want to go into poultry farming is:

1). What Poultry Niche Do You Want To Focus On:

The poultry farming business is wide. People majorly assume the market is all about growing chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowls. Poultry farming covers a lot from: meat production, to egg production, to feed production, to medicinal production, to chicken raising, to equipment production and a lot more. When you identify a niche that you can work with, you can start your farm.

2). What Breed Of Bird Do You Want To Raise:

There are various bird breeds you can raise on your poultry farm. Each comes with it’s own maintenance cost. But once you can determine the breed you want and know where and how to reach your potential customers, you can begin. Here are some bird breeds you can raise on your poultry farm: Chickens (Broilers & Layers), Turkeys, Guinea Fowls, Quails, Peacocks, Ducks, Geese, etc. Choosing the breed will help you determine what you want to achieve from each bird. If you want to go into meat production, broilers are raised for these. If you want to produce loads of eggs, layers are raised for these. Every breed has it’s main specific purpose.

3). Business Location:

The location of your poultry farm is very important. Setting up a farm in a remote area is far cheaper than in a city area because of the distance and low population. Usually, governments do not permit large scale poultry farming in urban areas because of the health implications, so you’d need to place your poultry farm off-city. The location must not be too far from a city area for ease of transportation and exposure to potential buyers. It’s a lot cheaper and safer to travel for 1 hour than to travel for 6 hours to deliver your poultry products. Pick an area with a good road network to an urban environment and you’re on a good track with your poultry farm.

4). Capital Investment:

As with other businesses, starting and running a poultry farm in Nigeria is capital intensive. Depending on the location and how large you want your poultry farm to be, it can take you between 100,000 Naira ($333.34) to 10,000,000 Naira ($33,333.34) to start up your poultry farm. The size of the poultry farm will determine how large your turnover will be.

5). Poultry House, Equipments, & Facilities:

The poultry housing system is critical to the success of your poultry farm. The type of poultry housing system you focus on will affect how your birds are placed, identifying productive & unproductive birds, and their overall health. There are three types of poultry housing systems. These are:

a). Free Roam:

This is a system where chicks are bought and allowed to roam about feeding themselves. This system is not right for anyone who wants aggressive production for wide scale commercial use because the birds could go missing or worse.

b). Battery Cage:

This is a system where the birds are kept in cages and fed on a regular basis. This system is a highly organised and effective poultry housing system used in poultry farming. Here, the birds have access to feed and water through troughs and laying nests. The cages are separated into various compartments and also creates a perfect environment for laying eggs.

c). Deep Litter:

In this system, saw dust is usually poured on the ground over a wide area so the birds can be comfortable. This makes it relatively easy for cleaning.  The major disadvantage with this method is that it’s difficult for disease out break to be managed.

Asides the poultry housing, many facilities and equipments that will make your poultry farm successful are: Egg trays, feeders, drinkers, lighting systems, nests, crates, incubators, heaters, waste disposal systems, and a lot more. If the facilities are thorough, adequate, and of top quality, your farm would grow favourably.

See Also: How To Market Your Farm Products: 10 Ways To Get Distributors

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6). Poultry Feeds:

The bird feeds are the most important things to their survival. Without food, none of them will survive. Feeding, been important to poultry farming, accounts for over 70% of all the total expenditure you will incur in your business. You can either manufacture poultry feeds, or you can purchase poultry feeds. Manufacturing the feeds are perfect for very large poultry farms because it saves them a lot of money. If your poultry farm is still small scale, buying feeds is the best option for you because, it takes a lot of money to fully setup a feed manufacturing plant.

7). Bird Health:

The general well being of the birds are very important. You’d have to spend periodically on vaccines and medications to ensure the birds stay healthy. Healthy birds grow strong and would generate a lot of revenue.

This poultry farming business plan template is important to starting and running a successful poultry farming business. With the right attitude and approach, your poultry farm would be highly successful and could positively contribute to the country’s GDP.

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What are your thoughts on this poultry farming business plan template? Let me know by leaving a comment below.



Three years ago, in an attempt to expand our fish farming business, we decided to launch out and look for new ponds to rent. In the process, we met an elderly man that happened to be the owner of a few abandoned ponds we were interested in, and he gave us some fatherly advice. He asked us what we wanted to use the ponds for, and when we told him it was for catfish farming, he advised us not to venture into it if we do not want to die young.

The reason behind his advice was because he has never made a profit in all his years as a catfish farmer. According to him, he experiences high blood pressure whenever he wants to sell his fish due to fear of experiencing another disappointment. Despite the fact that he owned the ponds and stood to gain if we rented them, he did not want us to go through the same negative experience he had.

This is the sad reality for most catfish farmers. I will never blame the man for his advice because “once your mother has been beaten by a mad man you will always run from mechanics” (this is a Yoruba proverb).

Based on our experience in this business, catfish farming is one of the most lucrative businesses around if only you understand the secrets involved. As far as I am concerned, I can never neglect this magnificent farming activity. Sit back and relax as we expose the secrets of millionaire catfish farmers.


The one thing I have learnt over time about millionaire catfish farmers is their ability to project and forecast into the future of their business. They always base their plan on economic realities of their environment. They will never venture into what their resources will not be able to take care of. Greed always makes never-do-well farmers to stock the number of fishes they will not be able to cater for, but millionaire farmers always cut their coat according to available resources.

Millionaire catfish farmers know how to grow their business steadily and will never depend on promises made by government or any close associate. In Nigeria of today, it costs nothing less than 400 naira (about $2) to raise a juvenile catfish to a table size of at least 1.4kg. A diligent farmer will take his time to calculate the quantity to stock based on the reality of his pocket and other resources he can lay his hands on in order not to fail at the end of the business season.


Another virtue I discovered about millionaire catfish farmers is the ability to work season in season out. They have developed their passion for the business and cannot do without visiting their farms or send trusted hands on daily basis. This set of people understands the dynamism of their business. At times they may have to go to farm early morning to feed their fishes. They have deeper understanding of season and can adjust their schedule to suit their business. They will never rest except they make the feed ready for their catfish.


At every market point where fish feed or inputs are sold, there is always a general price and bargained price. They know how to bypass the general price to get through their bargaining ability. In feed mills, an average feed miller may add as much as 20 naira on a unit of input, causing the total cost to skyrocket. In order to cut the cost, farmers are ready to buy in bulk for a particular farming season.

For instance, a unit of maize (i.e 1kg) costs as much as 70 naira at the feed mill as at the time of this write-up. The same can be bought for as low as 56 naira when you buy up to one ton. As such, a millionaire catfish farmer is able to save up to 14 naira on a unit of maize and 14,000 naira on a ton. For some of them with personal feed mill, getting cheaper ingredients from their supplier without compromising the quality is not difficult. They hardly buy on credit so as to get more reduced price.


It is one thing to produce, and another major thing to market what is produced. Millionaire catfish farmers will not just stop at the point of production but also work to get better market for their produce. Marketing in catfish farming goes beyond selling of one’s produce (table-sized fish); it involves meeting competitive buyers and selling to buyers with better conditions which may include pricing, sizing and payment option.


This set of people will not just sit down and believe everything the producer of inputs write on the label of their products. They go extra mile to investigate every declaration made by the producer. The farmers understand the fact that producers can make false declaration in order to sell fast in Nigeria. Millionaire farmers go extra mile to confirm the quality of input through analysis in laboratory and recommendations from other users when necessary.


For no reason will these people compromise quality. The experience has taught them that catfish farming is all about “garbage in garbage out”. To these people, the effect of sub-quality input goes beyond losing money, but also affects other processes in the farm. In a country where quality control is nonexistent, these people are ready to pay more where quality is guaranteed. They don’t just buy a product because it is cheap but rather because it is of quality value.


Another noticeable secret of millionaire catfish farmers is that they adhere strictly to best practices in catfish farming. They usually stock the best of seed (juveniles and fingerlings), stock moderately, and manage their water resources efficiently and effectively. Millionaire catfish farmers will not feed with sub-quality materials and will always wait patiently till their fishes grow to maturity without overfeeding or underfeeding them.


Many catfish farmers fail because of their little knowledge of the business. Learning from successful individual farmers could be the major way to a remarkable breakthrough in the business of catfish farming.


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